[Sigmetrics] Expected Synergy in Spanish Regional and National Systems of Innovation

Loet Leydesdorff loet at leydesdorff.net
Mon Apr 17 03:25:18 EDT 2017

Dividedness and the Expected Synergy in a Non-Linear Model of 
Spanish Regional and National Systems of Innovation
We analyze the Spanish national and regional innovation systems in terms of
the expected synergies at NUTS2 (19 regions) and NUTS3 (51 provinces)
levels. Synergy is operationalized as generating options for further
development among distributions of firm characteristics (N ? 1M).
Regionalization has been an objective in Spain since the constitution of
1978. Five regions are central: Barcelona in Catalonia, Madrid and its
immediate environment, Andalusia, the Valencian Community, and the Basque
Country. Barcelona and Madrid stand out as metropolitan innovation systems.
The Andalusian innovation system is concentrated in Seville. Synergy
generation in the Valencia region and the Basque Country is lower than in
the two metropoles by more than an order of magnitude. The national level
adds marginally to the sum of regional systems except for the case of
high-tech manufacturing. In sum, the national system of innovations is
multi-centered with a focus on cities more than regions.
Loet Leydesdorff & Igone Porto Gomez
* preprint at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2952675 
* apologies for cross-postings

Loet Leydesdorff 
Professor, University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR)
loet at leydesdorff.net  <mailto:loet at leydesdorff.net> ;
Associate Faculty, SPRU,  <http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/> University of
Guest Professor Zhejiang Univ. <http://www.zju.edu.cn/english/> , Hangzhou;
Visiting Professor, ISTIC,  <http://www.istic.ac.cn/Eng/brief_en.html>
Visiting Fellow, Birkbeck <http://www.bbk.ac.uk/> , University of London; 

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