Measuring Synergy in University-Industry-Government Relations

Loet Leydesdorff loet at LEYDESDORFF.NET
Mon Dec 3 02:07:26 EST 2012

A Routine for Measuring Synergy in University-Industry-Government Relations:
Mutual Information as a Triple-Helix and Quadruple-Helix Indicator

Mutual information in three (or more) dimensions can be considered as a
Triple-Helix indicator of synergy in university-industry-government
relations. An open-source routine th4.exe
<>  makes the computation of this
indicator interactively available at the Internet, and thus applicable to
large sets of data. Th4.exe computes all probabilistic entropies and mutual
information in two, three, and, if available in the data, four dimensions
among, for example, classes such as geographical addresses (cities,
regions), technological codes (e.g., OECD's NACE codes), and size
categories; or, alternatively, among institutional addresses (academic,
industrial, public sector) in document sets. The relations between the
Triple-Helix indicator -- as an indicator of synergy -- and the Triple-Helix
model that specifies the possibility of feedback by an overlay of
communications, are also discussed. 


Loet Leydesdorff, Han Woo Park, and Balazs Lengyel


December 2012; at 

** apologies for crosspostings



Loet Leydesdorff 

Professor, University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam.
Tel. +31-20-525 6598; fax: +31-842239111

 <mailto:loet at> loet at ;
Visiting Professor,  <> ISTIC,
Beijing; Honorary Fellow,  <> SPRU, University
of Sussex;  <>  


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