Zeng ML, Chan LM. "Trends and issues in establishing interoperability among knowledge organization systems" Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 55(5):377-395, March 2004.

Eugene Garfield garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Tue May 25 13:04:58 EDT 2004

Marcia Lei Zeng : mzeng at kent.edu

Lois Mai Chan : loischan at uky.edu

TITLE     Trends and issues in establishing interoperability among
          knowledge organization systems
AUTHOR    Zeng ML, Chan LM
          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 55 (5): 377-395 MAR 2004

Document type: Article     Language: English     Cited References: 69
Times Cited: 0      Explanation

This report analyzes the methodologies used in establishing
interoperability among knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as
controlled vocabularies and classification schemes that present the
organized interpretation of knowledge structures. The development and
trends of KOS are discussed with reference to the online era and the
Internet era. Selected current projects and activities addressing KOS
interoperability issues are reviewed in terms of the languages and
structures involved. The methodological analysis encompasses both
conventional and new methods that have proven to be widely accepted,
including derivation/modeling, translation/adaptation, satellite and leaf
node linking, direct mapping, co-occurrence mapping, switching, linking
through a temporary union list, and linking through a thesaurus server
protocol. Methods used in link storage and management, as well as common
issues regarding mapping and methodological options, are also presented. It
is concluded that interoperability of KOS is an unavoidable issue and
process in today's networked environment. There have been and will be many
multi-lingual products and services, with many involving various structured
systems. Results from recent efforts are encouraging.

KeyWords Plus:

Zeng ML, Kent State Univ, Sch Lib & Informat Sci, Kent, OH 44242 USA
Kent State Univ, Sch Lib & Informat Sci, Kent, OH 44242 USA
Univ Kentucky, Sch Lib & Informat Sci, Lexington, KY 40506 USA


IDS Number:



It is helpful if we look at the development and trends of KOS and reference
to the two distinguished periods: the online era and the Internet era.

_KOS and Compatibility Efforts in the Online Era_
The most significant period in the history of KOS development was from the
early 1960s to the late 1980s, with the growth of online databases.  During
the mid to late 1950s, when computing technologies and scientific
literature both  experienced rapid growth, theories on information and
communication as applied to indexing and retrieval were gradually
established, as disucssed inTaube's five-volume series Studies in
Coordinate Indeing published in 1953-1959 (Taube, 1953-); Eugene Garfield's
Citation Indexes for Science published in Science in 1955 (Garfield, 1955)
and the 1958 International Conference on Scientific Information (NAS, 1959)
(http://books.nap.edu/books/NI000518/html/R19.html#pagetop).  Putting
theories to practice, Chemical Titles (1960-), a current awareness tool for
chemistry resulting from Hans PeterLuhn's research (Luhn, 1961), began
publication in 1960.  Within ten years, computerized large-scale
bibliographic processing materialized through NASA's STAR (Scientific and
Technical Aerospace Reports), MEDLARS,ERIC, And the Science Citation
Index.   The batch processing systems of the 1960s were folled by the
online interactive retrieval systems of the 1970s and beyond (Lancaster &
Warner, 1993), including NASA-RECON, DIALOG, MEDLINE, LEXIS, BRS, etc. The
number of databases offered by DIALOG increased from three to over 200
between 1972 and 1984 and to over 450 by 1995.

Cited Author            Cited Work           Volume      Page      Year
  ALA                  COMM CAT DESCR ACC C                            2000
 *AM CHEM SOC          CHEM TITL                                       1960
 *ANSI NISO            Z39192003 ANSINISO                              1999
 *BSO                  FID PUBL                     564                1978
 *CARMEN WP12          CROSS COND CLASS SAU                            2000
 *CLASS WEB WEB SIT    LIBR C CAT DISTR SER                            2002
 *COGN SCI LAB PRIC    WORDN HOM                                       2003
 *ENGL HER             NAT MON REC THES ONL                            1999
 *GETT RES I           VACUBULARY DATABASES                            2000
 *HILT                 HILT HIGH LEV THES P                            2000
 *IFLA                 NEWSLETER                     24                2001
 *ISKO                 REC RES SEM COMP INT                            1995
 *ISO                  2788 ISO                                        1986
 *ISO                  5964 ISO                                        1985
 *LIBR C CAT DISTR     MARC 21 FORM BIBL DA                            1999
 *NAS                  P INT C SCI INF WASH                            1959
 *NKOS                 CLIR PUB                      91                2000
 *NLM                  FACT SHEET UMLS METH                            2003
 *NLM                  FACT SHEET UMLS SEM                             2000
 *OCLC                 WEBD                                            2002
 *U CAL SAN BARB       ADL HOM                                         2003
 *VRA                  VRA COR CAT VERS 3 0                            2002
 *WORDN                WORDN 1 7 1 REF MAN                             2002
 BUCKLAND M            D LIB MAGAZINE                 5                1999
 CHAN LM               J INTERNET CATALOGIN           4        35      2001
 CHAN LM               THESURI USED ONLINE                             1988
 CLEVERDON CW          ASLIB P                       19       173      1967
 COATES EJ             INT FORUM INFORMATIO           4         3      1979
 DACHELET R            MULTILINGUAL QUERYIN                            1997
 DAHLBERG I            INT CLASSIF                    7        66      1980
 DOERR M               J DIGITAL INFORMATIO           1                2001
 FERRARI RC            CATALOGING CLASSIFIC          28        73      1999
 FOSKETT DJ            ENCY LIB INFORMATION          30       416      1980
 FREYRE E              SUBJECT RETRIEVAL NE                     3      2003
 GARFIELD E            SCIENCE                      122       108      1955
 GILREATH CT           INT CLASSIF                   19       135      1992
 HIMANKA J             INT CLASSIF                   19       131      1992
 HUDON M               KNOWL ORGAN                   24        84      1997
 HUMPHREYS BL          INT CLASSIF                   15        85      1988
 IYER H                KNOWL ORGAN                   22       141      1995
 JANEE G               ADL THESAURUS PROTOC                            2002
 JOUGUELET S           SUBJECT INDEXING PRI                    64      1995
 KOCH T                SUBJECT RETRIEVAL NE                    25      2003
 KUHR PS               SUBJECT RETRIEVAL NE                    33      2003
 KUNZ M                68 IFLA COUNC GEN C                             2002
 LANCASTER FW          AM DOC                        20       119      1969
 LANCASTER FW          INFORMATION RETRIEVA                            1993
 LINDBERG DA           EFMI EUROPEAN FEDERA                            1987
 LUHN HP               INFORMATION RETRIE 2           3      1021      1961
 MICHOLSON D           68 IFLA COUNC GEN C                             2002
 MICHOLSON D           GLOBAL DIGITAL LIBR                    219      2001
 NICHOLSON D           SUBJECT RETRIEVAL NE                    61      2003
 NIEHOFF R             INT CLASSIF                   12         2      1985
 NOY NF                17 INT JOINT C ART I                            2001
 OLSON T               SUBJECT RETRIEVAL NE                    21      2003
 PITERNICK AB          ENCY LIB INFORMATION          45       399      1990
 RIESTHUIS GJA         SUBJECT RETRIEAL NET                    11      2003
 SAGER JC              INT CLASSIFICATION 3           9        19      1982
 SCHWEITZER A          SUBJECT INDEXING PRI                    16      1995
 SCIBOR E              KNOWL ORGAN                   21       203      1994
 SINKANHAS GM          ENCY LIBR INFORMATIO          27       160      1979
 SPARCK JK             INFORMATION RETRIEVA                   213      1981
 SPARCK JK             READINGS INFORMTION                      9      1997
 TAUBE M               STUDIES COORDINATE I                            1959
 THEROND D             EUROPEAN HERITAGE NE                            2000
 WHITELOCK PJ          INT CLASSIF                    9       145      1982
 WIGGINS EV            ENCY LIB INFORMATION          19       116      1976
 ZENG L                ENCY LIBR INFORMATIO          50         1      1992
 ZENG ML               SUBJECT RETRIEVAL NE                   122      2001

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