Ioannidis JPA "Global Estimates of High-Level Brain Drain and Deficit" FASEB Journal 18(9) p.936-939, June 2004
garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
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John P.A. Ioannides : E-mail Address: jioannid at cc.uoi.gr
Author(s): Ioannidis, JPA
Title: Global estimates of high-level brain drain and deficit
Source: FASEB JOURNAL, 18 (9): 936-939 JUN 2004
Language: English Document Type: Article
Brain drain, the international migration of scientists in search of better
opportunities, has been a long-standing concern, but quantitative
measurements are uncommon and limited to specific countries or disciplines.
We need to understand brain drain at a global level and estimate the extent
to which scientists born in countries with low opportunities never realize
their potential. Data on 1523 of the most highly cited scientists for
1981-1999 are analyzed. Overall, 31.9% of these scientists did not reside in
the country where they were born (range 18.1-54.6% across 21 different
scientific fields). There was great variability across developed countries
in the proportions of foreign-born resident scientists and emigrating
scientists. Countries without a critical mass of native scientists lost most
scientists to migration. This loss occurred in both developed and developing
countries. Adjusting for population and using the U. S. as reference, the
number of highly cited native-born scientists was at least 75% of the
expected number in only 8 countries other than the U. S. It is estimated
that similar to94% of the expected top scientists worldwide have not been
able to materialize themselves due to various adverse conditions. Scientific
deficit is only likely to help perpetuate these adverse conditions.
Addresses: Univ Ioannina, Sch Med, Dept Hyg & Epidemiol, GR-45110 Ioannina,
Greece; Fdn Res & Technol Hellas, Inst Biomed Res, Ioannina, Greece; Tufts
Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02111 USA
Reprint Address: Ioannidis, JPA, Univ Ioannina, Sch Med, Dept Hyg &
Epidemiol, GR-45110 Ioannina, Greece.
E-mail Address: jioannid at cc.uoi.gr
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Cited Reference Count: 19
Times Cited: 0
Publisher: FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL
Publisher Address: 9650 ROCKVILLE PIKE, BETHESDA, MD 20814-3998 USA
ISI Document Delivery No.: 833HJ
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