Full Text of Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information, 1958 - Available from NAS free of charge.

Eugene Garfield garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Fri Apr 16 14:03:49 EDT 2004

Full Text of Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific
Information, 1958 - Available from NAS free of charge.


When I was a young researcher at the Welch Medical Library in 1951, my
bible was the Proceedings of the Royal Society Scientific Information
Conference held in London, June 21 to July  2, 1948.  (see online summary
by J.H. McNinch, Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 37:136-141
The four sections and their respective editors-in-chief were :

I.     Publication and Distribution of Papers Reporting Original Work.
       Professor J.D. Bernal, F.R.S.

II     Abstracting services.  Sir David Chadwick

III    Indexing and Other Library Services.  Dr. J.E. Holmstrom

IV.    Reviews, Annual Reports, etc.  Professor H. Munro Fox, F.R.S.

Just seven years later, I was to participate in the 1958 ICSI Conference in
Washington.  While 20,000 copies of the proceedings were printed, it has
become increasingly difficult to locate copies of the two- volume set which
is out of print.   On  November 7, 2003 I wrote to President Bruce Alberts
of the National Academy of Sciences to ask for permission to scan and OCR
these volumes so that they could be posted to the Web.  On November 11,
2003 he wrote that we “should have the document up on our website within
weeks”.  This, in fact happened but the format adopted was the usual one of
the NAS Press.    I pointed out that it was impractical to print out 1662
pages one at a time.  Under the direction of Michael Jensen, NAS created
individual  PDF files for each chapter.  It is now possible to view each
document both in HTML  and  PDF format.

All of us in the information community should be grateful to NAS Press for
this generous cooperation. In order to scan the complete contents,
including author names, please go to :


Eugene Garfield
garfield at codex.cis.upenn.edu

(Introduction and contents pages listed below)

Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information --
Two Volumes
Sponsors of the Conference: National Science Foundation, National Academy
of Sciences, American Documentation Institute, National Research Council
1662 pages, 6x9, 1959. ISBN 10866

The launch of Sputnik caused a flurry of governmental activity in science
information. The 1958 International Conference on Scientific Information
(ICSI) was held in Washington from Nov.16-21 1958 and sponsored by NSF,
NAS, and American Documentation Institute, the predecessor to the American
Society for Information Science. In 1959, 20,000 copies of the two volume
proceedings were published by NAS and included 75 papers (1600 pages) by
dozens of pioneers from seven areas such as:
· Literature and reference needs of scientists
· Function and effectiveness of A & I services
· Effectiveness of Monographs, Compendia, and Specialized Centers
· Organization of information for storage and search: comparative
characteristics of existing systems
· Organization of information for storage and retrospective search:
intellectual problems and equipment considerations
· Organization of information for storage and retrospective search:
possibility for a general theory
· Responsibilities of Government, Societies, Universities, and
industry for improved information services and research.

It is now an out of print classic in the field of science information


Table of Contents

Front Matter  - pp.  i-xxiv

Opening Session Address - pp.  1-8

Area 1: Literature and Reference Needs of Scientists: Knowledge now
available and methods of ascertaining requirements - pp. 9-12

Proposed Scope of Area 1 - pp.  13-18

Study on the Use of Scientific Literature and Reference Services by
Scandinavian Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development
Elin Tornudd - pp.  19-76

The Transmission of Scientific Information
J.D. Bernal - pp.  77-96

An Operations Research Study of the Dissemination of Scientific Information
Michael H. Halbert and Russell Lackoff  - pp. 97-130

Information and Literature Use in a Research and Development Organization
I.H.HOGG and J.ROLAND SMITH - pp.  131-162

Methods by which Research Workers Find Information
R.M. Fishenden   pp. 163-180

 Determining Requirements for Atomic Energy Information from Reference
 Saul Herner and Mary Herner -   pp. 181-188

Systematically Ascertaining Requirements of Scientists for Information
Jiri Spirit and Ladislav Kofnovec - pp. 189-194

 How Scientists Actually Learn of Work Important to Them
Bentley Glass and Sharon H. Norwood - pp.  195-198

 Planned and Unplanned Scientific Information
Herbert Menzel  -  pp.  199-244

The Use of Technical Literature by Industrial Technologists
Christopher Scott -  pp. 245-266

Requirements of Forest Scientists for Literature and Reference Services
Stephen H. Spurr -  pp. 267-276

The Information-Gathering Habits of American Medical Scientists
Saul Herner - pp. 277-286

Use of Scientific Periodicals
D. J. Urquhart - pp.  287-300

Summary of Discussion

Area 2: The Function and Effectiveness of Abstracting and
Indexing Services - 313-316

Proposed Scope of Area 2 - 317-320

An Evaluation of Abstracting Journals and Indexes
Maurice H. Smith - pp. 321-350

Analytical Study of a Method for Literature Search in Abstracting Journals
Paul S. Lykoudis, P.E. Liley, and Y.S. Touloukian - pp 351-376

The Relation Between Completeness and Effectiveness of a Subject Catalogue
C.S. Sabel - pp. 377-380

Cost Analysis of Bibliographies or Bibliographic Services
Malcolm Rigby and Marian K. Rigby - pp  381-392

The Efficiency of Metallurgical Services
Nerio Gaudenzi -  pp. 393-406

Subject Slanting in Scientific Abstracting Publications
Saul Herner - pp. 407-428

The Importance of Peripheral Publications in the Documentation of Biology
Mildred A. Doss - pp. 429-434

Current Medical Literature: A Quantitative Survey of Articles and Journals
Estelle Brodman and Seymour I. Taine - pp.  435-448

A Combined Indexing-Abstracting System
 Isaac D. Welt  - pp.  449-460

A Unified Index to Science
Eugene Garfield - pp.  461-474

Lost Information: Unpublished Conference Papers
Feli Liebesny  - pp.  475-480

International Cooperation in Physics Abstracting
B. M. Crowther - pp.  481-490

International Cooperative Abstracting on Building: An Appraisal
A. B. Agard Evans - pp. 491-496

Cooperation and Coordination in Abstracting and Documentation
Otto Frank - pp. 497-510

On the Functioning of the All-Union Institute for Scientific and Technical
Information of the USSR Academy of Sciences
A. I. Mikhailov - pp. 511-522

Summary of Discussion

Area 3: Effectiveness of Monographs, Compendia, and Specialized Centers:
Present trends and new and proposed techniques and types of services  537-

Proposed Scope of Area 3

Review Literature and the Chemist

The Place of Analytical and Critical Reviews in Any Growing Biological
Science and the Service They May Render to Research
Isabella Leitch - pp. 571-588

Recent Trends in Scientific Documentation in South Asia: Problems of Speed
and Coverage
P. Sheel - pp. 589-604

Scientific Documentation in France
J. Wyaart - pp. 605-612

Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization
MAREK CIGÁNIK - pp 613-648

Summary of Discussion

Area 4: Organization of Information for Storage and Search: Comparative
characteristics of existing systems

Proposed Scope of Area 4 - pp.  665-670

Conventional and Inverted Grouping of Codes for Chemical Data
Eugene Miller, Delbert Ballard, John Kingston, and Mortimer Taube. - pp.

The Evaluation of Systems Used in Retrieval Systems on Large Electronic
 CYRIL CLEVERDON - pp. 687-698

Experience in Developing Information Retrieval Systems

Printing Chemical Structures Electronically: Encoded Compounds Searched
Generically with IBM-702

Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information
CARL J.WESSEL and WALTER M.BEJUKI - pp.  731-762

Retrieval Questions from the Use of Linde's Indexing and Retrieval System
FRED R.WHALEY - pp. 763-770

Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An
Experiment in Retrieval
R.C.WRIGHT and C.W.J.WILSON - pp. 771-802

Summary of Discussion


Area 5: Organization of Information for Storage and Retrospective Search:
Intellectual problems and equipment considerations in the design of new

 Proposed Scope of Area 5

 The Basic Types of Information Tasks and Some Methods of Their Solution
 V.P.CHERENIN - pp. 823-854

 Subject Analysis for Information Retrieval
B.C.VICKERY - pp.  855-866

 The Construction of a Faceted Classification for a Special Subject
 D.J.FOSKETT - pp. 867-888

 On the Coding of Geometrical Shapes and Other Representations, with
Reference to Archaeological Documents
 J. C. Gardin - pp. 889-902

 Subject-Word Letter Frequencies with Applications to Superimposed Coding
 HERBERT OHLMAN - pp. 903-916

 The Analogy between Mechanical Translation and Library Retrieval

 Linguistic Transformations for Information Retrieval
 Z.S.HARRIS - pp. 937-950

 Linguistic and Machine Methods for Compiling and Updating the Harvard
Automatic Dictionary

 The Feasability of Machine Searching of English Texts
VICTOR H.YNGVE - pp.  975-996

 Semantic Matrices
 G.PATRICK MEREDITH - pp. 997-1026

 Interlingual Communication in the Sciences
 JOSHUA WHATMOUGH - pp. 1027-1046

 An Overall Concept of Scientific Documentation Systems and Their Design
 E.J.CRANE and C.L.BERNIER - pp. 1047-1070

 The Possibilities of Far-Reaching Mechanization of Novelty Search of the
Patent Literature
 G.J.KOELEWIJN - pp. 1071-1096

 Descriptive Documentation
 CHARLES G.SMITH - pp. 1097-1116

 Variable Scope Search System: VS8

 The Haystaq System: Past, Present, and Future

 A Proposed Information Handling System for a Large Research Organization
 W.K.LOWRY and J.C.ALBRECHT - pp. 1181-1202

 Information Handling in a Large Information System
 P.R.P.CLARIDGE - pp. 1203-1220

 Tabledex: A New Coordinate Indexing Method for Bound Book Form
ROBERT S.LEDLEY - pp.  1221-1244

 The Comac: An Efficient Punched Card Collating System for the Storage and
Retrieval of Information
 MORTIMER TAUBE - pp. 1245-1254

 Summary of Discussion

 Area 6: Organization of Information for Storage and Retrospective Search:
Possibility for a general theory

 Proposed Scope of Area 6

 The Structure of Information Retrieval Systems
 B.C. Vickery - pp. 1275-1290

 The Descriptive Continuum: A
 FREDERICK JONKER - pp. 1291-1312

 Algebraic Representation of Storage and Retrieval Languages

 A Mathematical Theory of Language Symbols in Retrieval
 Calvin N. Mooers - pp. 1327-1364

 Abstract Theory of Retrieval Coding
 Clifford J. Maloney - pp. 1365-1382

 Maze Structure and Information Retrieval
 GERALD ESTRIN - pp. 1383-1394

 Summary of Discussion

 Area 7: Responsibilities of Government, Professional Societies,

 Proposed Scope of Area 7

 Responsibilities for Scientific Information in Biology: Proposal for
Financing a Comprehensive System
 Milton O. Lee1417-1428

 Responsibility for the Development of Scientific Information as a National
 Hazel Mews - pp. 1429-1434

 Differences in International Arrangements for Financial Support of
Information Services
 N.F.GRELL - pp. 1435-1440

 Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work
 George Bonn - pp. 1441-1488

 Training the Scientific Information Officer
 A.B.AGARD EVANS and J.FARRADANE - pp. 1489-1494

 Training for Scientific Information Work in Great Britain
 B.I.PALMER and D.J.FOSKETT -  pp. 1495-1502

 The ICSU Abstracting Board: The Story of a Venture in International
G.-A.BOUTRY -  pp.  1503-1516

 Creation of an International Center of Scientific Information
PAUL BOQUET - - pp.  1517-1522

 An International Institute for Scientific Information
WALDO CHAMBERLIN-  pp.  1523-1534

 Summary of Discussion

 Closing Session

 Financial Support


 Roster of Registrants


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