Articles from Scientometrics 60(3) 2004

Eugene Garfield garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Mon Aug 2 13:58:36 EDT 2004

Frank Havemann : frank.havemann at
TITLE:          Growth dynamics of German university enrolments and of
                scientific disciplines in the 19th century: Scaling
                behaviour under weak
                competitive pressure (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Havemann, F; Heinz, M; Wagner-Dobler, R
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.283-294 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       According to authors like H.E. Stanley and others, growth
dynamics of university research displays a quantitative behaviour similar
to the growth dynamics of firms acting under competitive pressure.
Features of such behaviour are probability distributions of annual growth
rates or the standard deviation of growth rates. We show that a similar
statistical behaviour can be observed in the growth dynamics of German
university enrolments or in the growth dynamics of physics and
mathematics, both for the 19th century. Since competitive pressure was
generally weak at that time, interpretations of statistical similarities
as to pointing to a "firm-like behavior" are questionable.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: F Havemann, Humboldt Univ, Inst Lib Sci, Dorotheenstr 26,
                D-10117 Berlin, Germany


Henk Moed : Moed at
Eugene Garfield: garfield at

TITLE:          In basic science the percentage of 'authoritative'
                references decreases as bibliographies become shorter
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Moed, HF; Garfield, E
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.295-303 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       The empirical question addressed in this contribution is:
How does the relative frequency at which authors in a research field cite
'authoritative' documents in the reference lists in their papers vary
with the number of references such papers contain? 'Authoritative'
documents are defined as those that are among the ten percent most
frequently cited items in a research field. It is assumed that authors
who write papers with relatively short reference lists are more selective
in what they cite than authors who compile long reference lists. Thus, by
comparing in a research field the fraction of references of a particular
type in short reference lists to that in longer lists, one can obtain an
indication of the importance of that type. Our analysis suggests that in
basic science fields such as physics or molecular biology the percentage
of 'authoritative' references decreases as bibliographies become shorter.
In other words, when basic scientists are selective in referencing
behavior, references to 'authoritative' documents are dropped more
readily than other types. The implications of this empirical finding for
the debate on normative versus constructive citation theories are

AUTHOR ADDRESS: HF Moed, Leiden Univ, Ctr Sci & Technol Studies, POB 9555,
                NL-2300 RB Leiden, Netherlands


Henry Small: henry.small at
TITLE:          Why authors think their papers are highly cited (Article,
AUTHOR:         Small, H
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.305-316 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT
ABSTRACT:       A survey of authors of highly cited papers in 22 fields
was undertaken in connection with a new bibliometric resource called
Essential Science Indicators (ESI(R)). Authors were asked to give their
opinions on why their papers are highly cited. They generally responded
by describing specific internal, technical aspects of their work,
relating them to external or social factors in their fields of study.
These self-perceptions provide clues to the factors that lead to high
citation rate, and the importance of the interaction between internal and
external factors. Internal factors are revealed by the technical
terminology used to describe the work, and how it is situated in the
problem domain for the field. External factors are revealed by a
different vocabulary describing how the work has been received within the
field, or its implications for a wider audience. Each author's response
regarding a highly cited work was analyzed on four dimensions: the author
perception of its novelty, utility, significance, and interest. A co-
occurrence analysis of the dimensions revealed that interest, the most
socially based dimension, was most often paired with one of the other
more internal dimensions, suggesting a synergy between internal and
external factors.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: H Small, Thomson ISI, 3501 Market St, Philadelphia, PA
                19104 USA

W.P. Yue : wp.yue at
TITLE:          Measuring the citation impact of research journals in
                clinical neurology: A structural equation modelling analysis
AUTHOR:         Yue, WP; Wilson, CS
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.317-332 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       This study develops and tests an integrated conceptual
model of journal evaluation from varying perspectives of citation
analysis. The main objective is to obtain a more complete understanding
of the external factors affecting journal citation impact; that is, a
theoretical construct measured by a number of citation indicators.
Structural equation modelling (SEM) with partial least squares (PLS) is
used to test the conceptual model with empirical data from journals in
clinical neurology. Interrelationships among journal citation impact and
four external factors (journal characteristics, journal accessibility,
journal visibility and journal internationality) have been successfully
explored, and the conceptual model of journal evaluation has been

AUTHOR ADDRESS: WP Yue, Univ New S Wales, Sch Informat Syst Technol &
                Management, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia


M. Negishi: negishi at
TITLE:          Citation database for Japanese papers: A new bibliometric
                tool for Japanese academic society (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Negishi, M; Sun, Y; Shigi, K
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.333-351 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       The paper describes the construction and functions of the
Citation Database for Japanese Papers (CJP) developed at the National
Institute of Informatics, Japan (NII), and the Impact Factors of CJP's
source journals. Then statistical analyses of multidimensional scaling on
citation counts for the academic society journals to measure relationship
among the societies are described. We also introduce a new citation
navigation system, CiNii, which enables users to access various resources
provided by NIL such as NACSIS Electronic Library Service (NACSIS-ELS) to
get electronic full-text of journal articles through citation links.
Recent political developments in Japan towards enhancement of scientific
information infrastructure are also introduced with its implication to
research evaluation systems incorporating citation analyses.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: M Negishi, Natl Inst Informat, Chiyoda Ku, 2-1-2
                Hitotsubashi, Tokyo 1018430, Japan

R.D. Shelton : rds at

TITLE:          The US-EU race for leadership of science and technology:
                Qualitative and quantitative indicators (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Shelton, RD; Holdridge, GM
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.353-363 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       Both the United States and the European Union have set
goals for worldwide leadership of science and technology. While the U. S.
leads in most input quantitative indicators, output indicators may be
more specific for determining present leadership. They show that the EU
has taken the lead in important metrics and is challenging the U. S. in
others. Qualitative indicators of fields of research and development,
based on expert review studies organized by the authors, confirm that
many EU labs are equal or better than those in the U.S.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: RD Shelton, WTEC Inc, 2809 Boston St,Suite 441, Baltimore,
                MD 21224 USA


TITLE:          China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations
                (CSTPC): History, impact and outlook (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Wu, YS; Pan, YT; Zhang, YH; Ma, Z; Pang, JG; Guo, H; Xu,
                B; Yang, ZQ
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.385-397 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       This paper traces the history of China Scientific and
Technical Papers and Citations database (CSTPC) since its founding in
1988. The fact that most Chinese scientists publish their research
results in Chinese journals requires that China establish SCI
counterparts dedicated to domestic S & T journals. The article describes
the selection criteria for source journals, the approach used to adjust
the structure of source journals, the criteria for selecting items to be
included in the database, and the indexing method. Then it discusses the
impact upon government R & D administration agencies and the science
community in general by both CSTPC team and CSTPC database. Finally, the
article analyzes the main factors that lead to the primary success of
CSTPD. The authors encourages information workers in other non-English
developing countries to build up similar databases.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: YS Wu, ISTIC, 15 Fuxinglu, Beijing 100038, Peoples R China

Hildrun Kretschmer :  hildrun.kretschmer at

TITLE:          Author productivity and geodesic distance in
                bibliographic co-authorship networks, and visibility on the
Web (Article,
AUTHOR:         Kretschmer, H
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.409-420 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       The increasing cooperation in science, which has led to
larger co-authorship networks, requires the application of new methods of
analysis of social networks in bibliographic co-authorship networks as
well as in networks visible on the Web. In this context, a number of
interesting papers on the "Erdos Number", which gives the shortest path
(geodesic distance) between an author and the well-known Hungarian
mathematician Erdos in a co-authorship network, have been published
recently. This paper develops new methods concerning the position of
highly productive authors in the network. Thus a relationship of
distribution of these authors among the clusters in the co-authorship
network could be proved to be dependent upon the size of the clusters.
Highly productive authors have, on average, low geodesic distances and
thus shorter length of paths to all the other authors of a specialism
compared to low productive authors, whereas the influencing possibility
of highly productive scientists gets distributed amongst others in the
development of the specialism.

A theory on the stratification in science with respect to the over random
similarity of scientists collaborating with one another, previously
covered with other empirical methods, could also be confirmed by the
application of geodesic distances.

The paper proposes that the newly developed methodology may also be
applied to visible networks in future studies on the Web. Further
investigation is warranted into whether co-authorship and web networks
have similar structures with regards to author productivity and geodesic

AUTHOR ADDRESS: H Kretschmer, COLLNET, Borgsdorfer Str 5, D-16540 Hohen
                Neuendorf, Germany


Olle Persson : olle.pesson at

TITLE:          Inflationary bibliometric values: The role of scientific
                collaboration and the need for relative indicators in
                evaluative studies
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Persson, O; Glanzel, W; Danell, R
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.421-432 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       Several research studies and reports on national and
European science and technology indicators have recently presented
figures reflecting intensifying scientific collaboration and increasing
citation impact in practically all science areas and at all levels of
aggregation. The main objective of this paper is twofold, namely first to
analyse if the number or weight of actors in scientific communication has
increased, if patterns of documented scientific communication and
collaboration have changed in the last two decades and if these
tendencies have inflationary features. The second question is concerned
with the role of scientific collaboration in this context. In particular,
the question will be answered to what extent co-authorship and
publication activity, on one hand, and co-authorship and citation impact,
on the other hand, do interact.

The answers found to these questions have strong implication for the
application of bibliometric indicators in research evaluation, moreover,
the construction of indicators applied to trend analyses and studies
based on medium-term or long-term observations have to be reconsidered to
guarantee the validity of conclusions drawn from bibliometric results.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: O Persson, Umea Univ, Dept Sociol, Inforsk, SE-90187 Umea,


Fuyuki Yoshikane : fuyuki at
TITLE:          Comparative analysis of coauthorship networks of
                different domains: The growth and change of networks
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Yoshikane, F; Kageura, K
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.433-444 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       Many studies have tried to describe patterns of research
collaboration through observing coauthorship networks. Those studies
mainly analyze static networks, and most of them do not consider the
development of networks. hi this study, we turn our attention to the
development of personal collaboration networks. On the basis of an
analysis from two viewpoints, i.e., growth in the number of collaborating
partners and change in the relationship strength with partners, we
describe and compare the characteristics of four different domains, i.e.,
electrical engineering, information processing, polymer science, and

AUTHOR ADDRESS: F Yoshikane, Natl Inst Acad Degrees & Univ Evaluat, Fac
                Univ Evaluat & Res, 1-29-1 Gakuen Nishimachi, Tokyo
                1878587, Japan

Jean-Charles Lamirel : lamirel at

TITLE:          New classification quality estimators for analysis of
                documentary information: Application to patent analysis and
web mapping
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Lamirel, JC; Francois, C; AL Shehabi, S; Hoffmann, M
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.445-462 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       The information analysis process includes a cluster
analysis or classification step associated with an expert validation of
the results. In this paper, we propose new measures of Recall/Precision
for estimating the quality of cluster analysis. These measures derive
both from the Galois lattice theory and from the Information Retrieval
(IR) domain. As opposed to classical measures of inertia, they present
the main advantages to be both independent of the classification method
and of the difference between the intrinsic dimension of the data and
those of the clusters.

We present two experiments on the basis of the MultiSOM model, which is
an extension of Kohonen's SOM model, as a cluster analysis method. Our
first experiment on patent data shows how our measures can be used to
compare viewpoint-oriented classification methods, such as MultiSOM, with
global cluster analysis method, such as WebSOM Our second experiment,
which takes part in the EICSTES EEC project, is an original Webometrics
experiment that combines content and links classification starting from a
large non-homogeneous set of web pages. This experiment highlights the
fact that break-even points between our different measures of
Recall/Precision can be used to determine an optimal number of clusters
for web data classification. The content of the clusters obtained when
using different break-even points are compared for determining the
quality of the resulting maps.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: JC Lamirel, LORIA, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy,

Jun-Ping Qiu :    jpqiu at

TITLE:          An analysis of backlink counts and Web Impact Factors for
                Chinese university websites (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Qiu, JP; Chen, JQ; Wang, Z
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.463-473 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       This article aims to study the total backlink counts,
external backlink counts and the Web Impact Factors (WIFs) for Chinese
university websites. By studying whether the backlink counts and WIFs of
websites associate with the comprehensive ratings and the research
ratings for Chinese universities, the article demonstrates that the
external backlink count can be a better evaluation measure for university
websites than WIF. The study also investigated issues about data
collection by using different search engines. It shows that data
collected by Alta Vista are more stable than AllTheWeb.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: JP Qiu, Wuhan Univ, Res Ctr Chinese Sci, Wuhan 430072,
                Peoples R China


Tang R. : tangr at
M. Thelwall :  m.thelwall at

TITLE:          Patterns of national and international Web inlinks to US
                academic departments: An analysis of disciplinary variations
AUTHOR:         Tang, R; Thelwall, M
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.475-485 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       An investigation of links to 89 US academic departments
from three different disciplines gave insights into the kinds of
international regions and national domains that linked to them. While
significant correlations were found between total counts of international
inlinks and total publication impact in Psychology and Chemistry, counts
of international inlinks to History departments were too small to give a
significant result. The correlations suggest that international links may
reflect, to a certain extent, patterns of scholarly communication. Even
though History departments attracted a significantly lower percentage of
international inlinks than those of Chemistry and Psychology, the main
source of links for all three disciplines was from Europe. Analyses of
national inlinks, characterized by gTLDs (generic Top Level Domains),
showed that the major source of links for all disciplines was .edu sites,
followed by .com, .org, .net. As a whole, international regional
differences in disciplines were stronger than gTLD differences, although
in both cases discrepancies were not of a large scale.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: R Tang, Catholic Univ Amer, Sch Lib & Informat Sci, 620
                Michigan Ave NE, Washington, DC 20064 USA


LW  Vaughan : lvaughan at

TITLE:          Links to commercial websites as a source of business
                information (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Vaughan, LW; Wu, GZ
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.487-496 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       Websites of China's top 100 information technology (IT)
companies were examined. Link count to a company's website was found to
correlate with the company's revenue, profit, and research and
development expenses. This suggests that Web hyperlinks to commercial
sites can be a business performance indicator and thus a source of
business information. This information is useful for Web business
intelligence and Web data mining. As a comparison to IT companies,
China's top 100 privately owned companies were also studied. No
relationship between link count and the business performance measure was
found for these companies due probably to the heterogeneous nature of
this group. Data collection issues for webometrics research were also
explored in the study.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: LW Vaughan, Univ Western Ontario, Fac Informat & Media
                Studies, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada

Leo Egghe : legghe at

TITLE:          Positive reinforcement and 3-dimensional informetrics
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Egghe, L
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.497-509 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       We show that the composition of two information
production processes (IPPs), where the items of the first IPP are the
sources of the second, and where the ranks of the sources in the first
IPP agree with the ranks of the sources in the second IPP, yields an IPP
which is positively reinforced with respect to the first IPP. This means
that the rank-frequency distribution of the composition is the
composition of the rank-frequency distribution of the first IPP and an
increasing function phi, which is explicitly calculable from the two
IPPs' distributions.

>From the rank-frequency distribution of the composition, we derive its
size-frequency distribution in terms of the size-frequency distribution
of the first IPP and of the function phi.

The paper also relates the concentration of the reinforced IPP to that of
the original one.

This theory solves part of the problem of the determination of a third
IPP from two given ones (so-called three-dimensional informetrics). In
this paper we solved the "linear" case, i.e., where the third IPP is the
composition of the other two IPPs.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: L Egghe, Limburgs Univ Ctr, Univ Campus, B-3590 Diepenbeek,

Wolfgang Glanzel : h4324gla at

TITLE:          Towards a model for diachronous and synchronous citation
                analyses (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Glanzel, W
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.511-522 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       This paper gives an overview of the diachronous
(prospective) and synchronous (retrospective) approach to ageing studies
of scientific literature from the perspective of technical reliability,
visualising the different aspects that can be analysed by the two
approaches. The main objective is to deepen the understanding of the
mechanism and the theory underlying the two aproaches, and is to show
that the difference between the diachronous and synchronous model is not
"Just counting into opposite directions". In this context, a stochastic
model is presented showing that one and the same model can be used to
describe both diachronous and synchronous perspectives of citation

On the basis of this model, it is explained how some diachronous and
synchronous citation-based indicators can be re-calculated for changing
publication periods and citation windows underlying their construction.
The paper is concluded by several applications such as the definition and
calculation of diachronous (prospective) and synchronous (retrospective)
journal impact measures and other citation indicators used in research

AUTHOR ADDRESS: W Glanzel, Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dekenstr 2, B-3000
                Louvain, Belgium


TITLE:          The multivariate Waring distribution and its application
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Shan, S; Jiang, GH; Jiang, L
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 60 (3). 2004. p.523-535 KLUWER ACADEMIC
                PUBL, DORDRECHT

ABSTRACT:       The multivariate Waring distribution is developed and
investigated. A special case, the bivariate Waring distribution, is
considered. It is shown that the distributions have some nice properties
as multivariate distribution. Some applications to the distribution of
scientific productivity are discussed.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: S Shan, Shanghai Univ, Dept Management & Informat Engn,
                Shanghai 201800, Peoples R China

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