Ramani S., de Looze MA. "Country-specific characteristics of patent applications in France, Germany and the U.K. in the biotechnology sectors" Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, vol 14, no. 4, 457-480 (2002).
garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Wed Mar 19 12:37:24 EST 2003
Shyama Ramani :
shyamar at grenoble.inra.fr
delooze at grenoble.inra.fr
TITLE COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENT APPLICATIONS
IN FRANCE, GERMANY AND THE U.K. IN THE BIOTECHNOLOGY SECTORS
Source Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, vol 14, no. 4,
Authors Shyama V. Ramani* and Marie-Angèle de Looze*
Department of Economics and Social Sciences,
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA),
Université Pierre Mendès France,
BP 47, 38070 Grenoble cedex 9, France.
Tel:33 4 7682 5439 ; Fax: 33 4 7682 5455;
Given that institutions are highly country-specific, the differences in the
national systems of innovation in the different countries of Europe are
likely to give rise to country-specific patterns in new technology
investment. The objective of this paper is to identify such differences, in
the biotechnology sectors, in France, Germany and the U.K. using information
on patent applications.
The data on patent applications is extracted from the Derwent Biotechnology
Abstracts containing biotechnology patents that were applied for either in
France, Germany or the U.K. between 1992-1996. A set of well known
indicators, which are dispersed in the economics literature is assembled to
evaluate the performance of the NSI of a country as embodied in its patent
statistics. Finally, co-word analysis, a scientometric method used to study
multidimensional systems or variables, is introduced to create indicators of
the network structure of technologies and collaborating actors underlying
the innovation system.
The results, indicate that France is focused on the "dominant" technology of
genetic engineering and its public laboratories and collective patent
applications play an important role. Germany is leading in the total number
of patent applications but is focused on "intermediate" and "residual"
technologies with a significant number of individual depositors. The U.K. is
leading in the "dominant" technology. Its public laboratories and firms are
strongly involved in depositing patents with a marked strategy of
Keywords: France, Germany, United Kingdom, biotechnology, patent
applications and national systems of innovation.
Corresponding author: Shyama V. Ramani, Department of Economics and Social
Sciences, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Universite
Pierre Mendes France, BP 47, 38070 Grenoble cedex 9, France. Tel: 33 4 76 82
54 39. Fax : 33 4 76 82 54 55.
email : shyamar at grenoble.inra.fr
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