preprint versions; the Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations

Loet Leydesdorff loet at LEYDESDORFF.NET
Fri Sep 30 03:00:07 EDT 2011

Where may Synergy be Indicated in the Norwegian Innovation System?
Triple-Helix Relations among Technology, Organization, and Geography

Øivind Strand and  Loet Leydesdorff


Using entropy statistics and data for all (0.5 million) Norwegian firms, the
national and regional innovation systems are decomposed into three
subdynamics: (i) economic wealth generation, (ii) technological novelty
production, and (iii) government interventions and administrative control.
The mutual information in three dimensions can then be used as an indicator
of potential synergy, that is, reduction of uncertainty. We aggregate the
data at the NUTS3 level for 19 counties, the NUTS2 level for seven regions,
and the single NUTS1 level for the nation. 19.6% of the synergy (measured as
in-between group reduction of uncertainty) was found at the regional level,
whereas only another 2.7% was added by aggregation at the national level of
integration. Using this triple-helix indicator, the counties along the west
coast are indicated as more knowledge-based than the metropolitan area of
Oslo or the geographical environment of the Technical University in
Trondheim. Foreign direct investment seems to have larger knowledge
spill-overs in Norway (oil, gas, offshore, chemistry, and marine) than the
institutional knowledge infrastructure in established universities. The
northern part of the country, which receives large government subsidies,
shows a deviant pattern that is not stable across scale-levels of



Has Globalization Strengthened South Korea
<> ’s
National Research System?

National and International Dynamics of the Triple Helix of Scientific
Co-authorship Relationships in South Korea

Scientometrics (in press; doi: 10.1007/s11192-11011-10512-11199)


Ki-Seok Kwon, Han Woo Park, Minho So, and Loet Leydesdorff 


We trace the structural patterns of co-authorship between Korean researchers
at three institutional types (University, Government, and Industry) and
their international partners in terms of the mutual information generated in
these relations. Data were collected from the Web of Science during the
period 1968-2009. The traditional Triple-Helix indicator was modified to
measure the evolving network of co-authorship relations.. The results show
that international co-authorship relations have varied considerably over
time and with changes in government policies, but most relations have become
stable since the early 2000s. In other words, the national publication
system of Korea has gained some synergy from R&D internationalization during
the 1990s, but the development seems to stagnate particularly at the
national level: whereas both university and industrial collaborations are
internationalized, the cross-connection within Korea has steadily eroded. (preprint version)



Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the
Commercialization of the Sciences

Both self-organization and organization are important for the further
development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each
other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and
"interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of
communication are then "recombined." However, self-organization in the
symbolically generalized codes of communication can be expected to operate
at the global level. The Triple Helix model allows for both a
neo-institutional appreciation in terms of historical networks of
university-industry-government relations and a neo-evolutionary
interpretation in terms of three functions: (i) novelty production, (i)
wealth generation, and (iii) political control. Using this model, one can
appreciate both subdynamics. The mutual information in three dimensions
enables us to measure the trade-off between organization and
self-organization as a possible synergy. The question of optimization
between commercial and public interests in the different sciences can thus
be made empirical. 



** apologies for cross-postings


Loet Leydesdorff 

Professor, University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam.
Tel. +31-20-525 6598; fax: +31-842239111

 <mailto:loet at> loet at ;
Visiting Professor, ISTIC,  <>
Beijing; Honorary Fellow, SPRU,  <> University
of Sussex 


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