Steps towards standards for citation analysis: An Evaluation of Impacts in "Nanoscience & nanotechnology" (preprint version)

Loet Leydesdorff loet at LEYDESDORFF.NET
Tue Sep 13 00:02:20 EDT 2011

An Evaluation of Impacts in
<> "Nanoscience &
Steps towards standards for citation analysis


(Paper to be presented at the 2011 Atlanta Conference on

Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy, September 15-17, Atlanta GA)


One is inclined to conceptualize impact in terms of citations per
publication, and thus as an average. However, citation distributions are
skewed, and the average has the disadvantage that the number of publications
is used in the denominator. Using hundred percentiles, one can integrate the
normalized citation curve and develop an indicator that can be compared
across document sets because percentile ranks are defined at the article
level. I apply this indicator to the set of 58 journals in the ISI Subject
Category of "Nanoscience & nanotechnology," and rank journals, countries,
cities, and institutes using non-parametric statistics. The significance
levels of results can thus be indicated. The results are first compared with
the ISI-Impact Factors, but this Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) can be
used with any set downloaded from the (Social) Science Citation Index. The
software is made publicly available at the Internet. Visualization
techniques are also specified for evaluation by positioning institutes on
Google Map overlays. 

** apologies for cross postings.


Loet Leydesdorff 

Professor, University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam.
Tel. +31-20-525 6598; fax: +31-842239111

 <mailto:loet at> loet at ;
Visiting Professor,  <> ISTIC,
Beijing; Honorary Fellow,  <> SPRU, University
of Sussex 


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