Tighe P, Rice KJ, Gravenstein N, Rice MJ "Artifactual Increase in Journal Self-Citation" Anesthesia and Analgesia 113(2):378-382, August 2011

Eugene Garfield garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Mon Aug 22 18:53:23 EDT 2011

E-mail Address: mrice at anest.ufl.edu  

TITLE : Artifactual Increase in Journal Self-Citation  

Author(s): Tighe, P (Tighe, Patrick)1; Rice, KJ (Rice, Kevin J.)2; Gravenstein, 
N (Gravenstein, Nikolaus)1; Rice, MJ (Rice, Mark J.)1  

Source: ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA  Volume: 113   Issue: 2   Pages: 378-
382   DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31821d72e5   Published: AUG 2011
Times Cited: 0 (from Web of Science)  

Cited References: 6 [ view related records ]     Citation Map      

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: After submission of a manuscript to a peer-
reviewed anesthesia journal, several authors were asked to cite additional 
references from the journal to which they submitted. We hypothesized that 
there were differences among the anesthesiology journals in both the total 
number of self-citations and the proportion of self-citations to the total 
number of references in each manuscript for the years 2005 and 2010. 

METHODS: We conducted a review of a sample of manuscripts from 2005 and 
2010 to examine the number and rate of self-citations. As a secondary 
analysis, we reviewed impact factor (IF), rate of self-referencing, and 
contribution of self-citations to IF in the population of manuscripts published 
in 8 anesthesia journals between 2000 and 2009 using the ISI Journal Citation 

RESULTS: The number (P < 0.0001) and rate (P < 0.0001) of self-citations 
among the different journals were significantly different in 2005, with similar 
results for 2010 in the number (P < 0.0001) and rate (P = 0.0002) of self-
citations. The mean range of number of self-citations ranged from 0.45 (95% 
confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.84) to 3.95 (95% CI, 2.2 to 5.7) in 2005 
and from 0.25 (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.55) to 4.5 (95% CI, 2.2 to 6.9) in 2010. On 
a per-journal basis, no difference in the number of self-citations was noted 
between 2005 and 2010. Analysis of the ISI Journal Citation Reports from 2000 
to 2009 suggested a general decline in the contribution of self-cites to the IF 
over time for the aggregate journals (Spearman correlation coefficient (Rs) -
0.25 (95% CI, -0.45 to -0.03), P = 0.02), with the exception of the journal in 
question (Rs = 0.59 (95% CI, -0.1 to 0.88), P = 0.05). Positive correlations 
were found between self-cited rate and IF (Rs 0.52, 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.66, P < 
0.0001), percentage of self-cites to years used in IF calculation and IF (Rs 
0.41, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.58, P < 0.0001), and delta-IF and IF (Rs 0.89, 95% 
CI, 0.84 to 0.93, P < 0.0001). 

CONCLUSION: Although the number and rate of self-citations differed among 
anesthesia journals, the contribution of self-citation to IF has declined over 
time for most anesthesia journals. These results suggest periodic 
reassessment may be important to ensure that the publication process 
remains transparent and impartial to bias. (Anesth Analg 2011; 113: 378-82) 
Document Type: Article  
Language: English  

Reprint Address: Rice, KJRice, MJ (reprint author), Univ Florida, Coll Med, Dept 
Anesthesiol, POB 100254, Gainesville, FL 32610 USA  

1. Univ Florida, Coll Med, Dept Anesthesiol, Gainesville, FL 32610 USA 
2. Univ Wisconsin, Madison, WI USA  

E-mail Address: mrice at anest.ufl.edu  

PA 19106-3621 USA  
Web of Science Category: Anesthesiology  
Subject Category: Anesthesiology  
IDS Number: 796PQ  



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