Kostoff, RN; Koytcheff, RG; Lau, CGY "Global nanotechnology research metrics" SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.565-601 SPRINGER, Dordrecht

Eugene Garfield garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Fri Mar 23 16:26:27 EDT 2007

E-mail Addresses: kostofr at onr.navy.mil 

TITLE:          Global nanotechnology research metrics (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Kostoff, RN; Koytcheff, RG; Lau, CGY
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.565-601 SPRINGER,

 ABSTRACT:       Text mining was used to extract technical intelligence
from the open source global nanotechnology and nanoscience research 
literature. An extensive nanotechnology/nanoscience-focused query was 
applied to the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index
(SCI/SSCI) databases. The nanotechnology/nanoscience research literature 
infrastructure (prolific authors, key journals/institutions/countries, most 
cited authors/journals/documents) was obtained using bibliometrics.
A novel addition was the use of institution and country auto-correlation 
maps to show co-publishing networks among institutions and among countries, 
and the use of institution-phrase and country-phrase cross- correlation 
maps to show institution networks and country networks based on use of 
common terminology (proxy for common interests). The use of factor matrices 
quantified further the strength of the linkages among institutions and 
among countries, and validated the co-publishing networks shown graphically 
on the maps.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: RN Kostoff, Off Naval Res, 875 N Randolph St, Arlington, VA
                22217 USA

TITLE:          Knowledge emergence in scientific communication: from
                "fullerenes" to "nanotubes" (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Lucio-Arias, D; Leydesdorff, L
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.603-632 SPRINGER,


ABSTRACT:       This article explores the emergence of knowledge from
scientific discoveries and their effects on the structure of scientific 
communication. Network analysis is applied to understand this emergence 
institutionally as changes in the journals; semantically as changes in the 
codification of meaning in terms of words; and cognitively as the new 
knowledge becomes the emergent foundation of further developments. The 
discovery of fullerenes in 1985 is analyzed as the scientific discovery 
that triggered a process which led to research in nanotubes.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: D Lucio-Arias, Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Sch Commun Res,
                Kloveniersburgwal 48, NL-1012 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands

TITLE:          How cross-disciplinary is bionanotechnology? Explorations
                in the specialty of molecular motors (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Rafols, I; Meyer, M
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.633-650 SPRINGER,

                FIELDS; POLICY

ABSTRACT:       Nanotechnology has been presented in the policy discourse
as an intrinsically interdisciplinary field, requiring collaborations among 
researchers with different backgrounds, and specific funding schemes 
supporting knowledge-integration activities. Early bibliometric studies 
supported this interdisciplinary vision (MEYER & PERSSON, 1998), but recent 
results suggest that nanotechnology is (yet) a mixed bag with various mono-
disciplinary subfields (SCHUMMER, 2004). We have reexamined the issue at 
the research project level, carrying out five case studies in molecular 
motors, a specialty of bionanotechnology. Relying both in data from 
interviews and bibliometric indicators, we have developed a 
multidimensional analysis (SANZ-MENENDEZ et al., 2001) in order to explore 
the extent and types of cross-disciplinary practices in each project. We 
have found that there is a consistent high degree of cross- disciplinarity 
in the cognitive practices of research (i.e., use of references and 
instrumentalities) but a more erratic and narrower degree in the social 
dimensions (i.e., affiliation and researchers' background).
This suggests that cross-disciplinarity is an eminently epistemic 
characteristic and that bibliometric indicators based on citations and 
references capture more accurately the generation of cross-disciplinary 
knowledge than approaches tracking co-authors' disciplinary affiliations.
In the light of these findings we raise the question whether policies 
focusing on formal collaborations between laboratories are the most 
appropriate to facilitate cross-disciplinary knowledge acquisition and 

AUTHOR ADDRESS: I Rafols, Univ Sussex, SPRU, Freeman Ctr, Brighton BN1 9QE,
                E Sussex, England

TITLE:          Gatekeeping patterns in nano-titled journals (Article,
AUTHOR:         Braun, T; Zsindely, S; Diospatonyi, I; Zador, E
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.651-667 SPRINGER,

                 JOURNALS  item_title


ABSTRACT:       Activities on nanoscale research have seen a
skyrocketting growth beginning during the nineties. This can be documented 
by the birth of no less than 16 science journals dedicated entirely to this 
field of science. The topics of these journals reflect the true 
interdisciplinary character of nanoscale research. In this paper the 
decision-makers on what and when appears in those journals, the 
gatekeepers, i.e., the editorial members of those journals and their 
national identity are analyzed and some conclusions are drawn on the 
decisional power of the countries these gatekeepers are located in.

It came out that although the United States is still the leading power in 
the nanoscale research field, the EU is strongly catching up and due to 
intensive efforts in this directions by some Far East countries as China 
and Japan but also of India, Asia is nearing and in some cases even 
overtaking the big powers.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: T Braun, Hungarian Acad Sci, Inst Res Policy Studies,
                ISSRU, POB 123, H-1443 Budapest, Hungary
TITLE:          The global institutionalization of nanotechnology
                research: A bibliometric approach to the assessment of 
science policy
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Schummer, J
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.669-692 SPRINGER,

 ABSTRACT:       Based on bibliometric methods, this paper describes the
global institutionalization of nanotechnology research from the mid-1980s 
to 2006. Owing to an extremely strong dynamics, the institutionalization of 
nanotechnology is likely to surpass those of major disciplines in only a 
few years. A breakdown of the relative institutionalizations strengths by 
the main geographical regions, countries, research sectors, disciplines, 
and institutional types provides a very diverse picture over the time 
period because of different national science policies. The results allow a 
critical assessment of the different science policies based on the relative 
institutionalizations strengths as well as the conclusion that the 
institutionalization process has run out of control of individual 
governments who once induced the development.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: J Schummer, Tech Univ Darmstadt, Dept Philosophy, D-64283
                Darmstadt, Germany
TITLE:          Nanotechnology as a field of science: Its delineation in
                terms of journals and patents (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Leydesdorff, L; Zhou, P
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.693-713 SPRINGER,
ABSTRACT:       The Journal Citation Reports of the Science Citation
Index 2004 were used to delineate a core set of nanotechnology journals and 
a nanotechnology-relevant set. In comparison with 2003, the core set has 
grown and the relevant set has decreased. This suggests a higher degree of 
codification in the field of nanotechnology: the field has become more 
focused in terms of citation practices. Using the citing patterns among 
journals at the aggregate level, a core group of ten nanotechnology 
journals in the vector space can be delineated on the criterion of 
betweenness centrality. National contributions to this core group of 
journals are evaluated for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005.
Additionally, the specific class of nanotechnology patents in the database 
of the U. S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) is analyzed to determine if 
non-patent literature references can be used as a source for the 
delineation of the knowledge base in terms of scientific journals.
The references are primarily to general science journals and letters, and 
therefore not specific enough for the purpose of delineating a journal set.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: L Leydesdorff, Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Sch Commun Res,
                Kloveniersburgwal 48, NL-1012 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands
TITLE:          Internationalization and evolution of application areas
                of an emerging technology: The case of nanotechnology 
(Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Wong, PK; Ho, YP; Chan, CK
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.715-737 SPRINGER,

                PATENTS; COUNTRY

ABSTRACT:       Nanotechnology patenting has grown rapidly in recent
years as an increasing number of countries are getting into the global 
nanotechnology race. Using a refined methodology to identify and classify 
nanotechnology patents, this paper analyses the changing pattern of 
internationalization of nanotechnology patenting activities from 1976- 
2004. We show that the dominance of the G5 countries have declined in 
recent years, not only in terms of quantity, but also in terms of quality 
as measured by citation indicators. In addition, using a new approach to 
classifying the intended areas of commercial applications, we show that 
nanotechnology patenting initially emphasized instrumentation, but 
exhibited greater diversification to other application areas in recent 
years. Significant differences in application area specialization are also 
found among major nanotechnology nations. Moreover, universities are found 
to play a significant and increasing role in patenting, particularly in US, 
UK and Canada.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: PK Wong, Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 0511, Singapore

TITLE:          Measuring and assessing the development of nanotechnology
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Hullmann, A
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.739-758 SPRINGER,

 ABSTRACT:       Nanotechnology merits having a major impact on the world
economy because its applications will be used in virtually all sectors.
Scientists, researchers, managers, investors and policy makers worldwide 
acknowledge this huge potential and have started the nano-race. The purpose 
of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of nanotechnology from an 
economic perspective, by presenting data on markets, funding, companies, 
patents and publications. It will also raise the question of how much of 
the nano-hype is founded on economic data and how much is based on wishful 
thinking. It focuses on a comparison between world regions, thereby 
concentrating on Europe and the European Union in relation to their main 
competitors - the United States and Japan and the emerging 'nano-powers' 
China and Russia.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: A Hullmann, Commiss European Communities, DG Res Unit, CDMA
                6-133, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium
TITLE:          Anticipating technological breakthroughs: Using
                bibliographic coupling to explore the nanotubes paradigm 
AUTHOR:         Kuusi, O; Meyer, M
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.759-777 SPRINGER,

                 SCIENTOMETR*  rwork;
                 KESSLER MM         AM DOC                 14:10    1963;
                 BIBLIOGRAPHIC*  item_title

ABSTRACT:       There is general consensus that the field of
nanotechnology will be very important in the future. An open question is, 
however, which technological approaches or paradigms will be important in 
the field. The paper assumes that the carbon nanotube will be a key element 
of an emerging technological paradigm in nanotechnology. This study employs 
a bibliometric method - bibliographic coupling - to identify important 
nanotubes-related 'leitbilder' - a concept meaning 'guiding images' that 
provide a basis for different professions and disciplines to work in the 
same direction. Until recently, bibliographic coupling has been applied 
rarely for purposes of research evaluation, not to mention technology 
foresight. Our case study seems to suggest that bibliographic coupling is 
particularly suitable for anticipating technological breakthroughs. 
Bibliographic coupling analysis of recent nanotube-related patents focused 
our attention to recent patents owned by Nantero Inc. Nantero's main focus 
is the development of NRAM - a high- density nonvolatile random access 
memory. The NRAM leitbild seems to be an important emerging leitbild. It 
connects technical opportunities and promising applications relating to the 
memories in devices such as cell phones, MP3 players, digital cameras, as 
well as applications in networking arena.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: O Kuusi, VATT Govt Inst Econ Res, Arkadiankatu 7,PL 1279,
                Helsinki 00101, Finland
TITLE:          What do we know about innovation in nanotechnology? Some
                propositions about an emerging field between hype and path-
                (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Meyer, M
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.779-810 SPRINGER,


ABSTRACT:       This contribution formulates a number of propositions
about the emergence of novel nanoscience and nanotechnology (N&N).
Seeking to complement recent work that aims to define a research agenda and 
draws on general insights from the innovation literature, this paper aims 
to synthesize knowledge from innovation-related studies of the N&N field. 
More specifically, it is suggested that N&N is often misconstrued as either 
a field of technology or an area of (broadly) converging technologies while 
evidence to date suggests rather that N&N be considered a set of inter-
related and overlapping about not necessarily merging technologies. The 
role of instrumentation in connecting the various N&N fields is underlined. 
Finally, the question is raised whether change in N&N tends to be 
incremental rather than discontinuous, being the result of technological 
path-dependencies and lock-ins in industry- typical search regimes that are 
only slowly giving way to more boundary- crossing activities.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: M Meyer, Univ Sussex, SPRU, Freeman Ctr, Brighton BN1 9QE,
                E Sussex, England
TITLE:          Characterizing creative scientists in nano-S&T:
                Productivity, multidisciplinarity, and network brokerage in 
                longitudinal perspective (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Heinze, T; Bauer, G
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.811-830 SPRINGER,

ABSTRACT:       While some believe that publication and citation scores
are key predictors of breakthroughs in science, others claim that people 
who work at the intersection of scientific communities are more likely to 
be familiar with selecting and synthesizing alternatives into novel ideas. 
This paper contributes to this controversy by presenting a longitudinal 
comparison of highly creative scientists with equally productive 
researchers. The sample of creative scientists is identified by combining 
information on science awards and nominations by international peers 
covering research accomplishments in the mid-1990s.
Results suggest that it is not only the sheer quantity of publications that 
causes scientists to produce creative pieces of work. Rather, their ability 
to effectively communicate with otherwise disconnected peers and to address 
a broader work spectrum also enhances their chances to be widely cited and 
to develop novel ideas.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: T Heinze, Fraunhofer Inst Syst & Innovat Res, D-76139
                Karlsruhe, Germany

TITLE:          Mapping nanosciences by citation flows: A preliminary
                analysis (Article, English)
AUTHOR:         Bassecoulard, E; Lelu, A; Zitt, M
SOURCE:         SCIENTOMETRICS 70 (3). MAR 2007. p.859-880 SPRINGER,

                 SMALL H  rauth; SCIENTOMETR*  rwork;
                 KESSLER MM         AM DOC                 14:10    1963;
                 CITATION  item_title; CITATION*  item_title


ABSTRACT:       This article presents a citation-based mapping exercise
in the nanosciences field and a first sketch of citation transactions (a 
measure of cognitive dependences). Nanosciences are considered to be one of 
the "convergent" components shaping the future of science and technology. 
Recurrent questions about the structure of the field concern its diversity 
and multi- or inter-disciplinarity. Observations made from various points 
of view confirm a strong differentiation of the field, which is scattered 
in multiple galaxies with moderate level of exchanges.
The multi-disciplinarity of themes and super-themes detected by mapping 
also appears moderate, most of the super-themes being based on physics and 
chemistry in various proportions. Structural analysis of the list of 
references in articles suggests that the moderate multi-disciplinarity 
observed at the aggregate level partly stems from an actual inter- 
disciplinarity at the article level.

AUTHOR ADDRESS: E Bassecoulard, INRA, BP 71627, F-44316 Nantes 3, France

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