Fox MF "Gender, family characteristics, and publication productivity among scientists" SOCIAL STUDIES OF SCIENCE 35 (1): 131-150 FEB 2005
garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Wed May 25 17:09:02 EDT 2005
Mary Frank Fox : e-mail: mary.fox at publicpolicy.gatech.edu
Title: Gender, family characteristics, and publication productivity among
Author(s): Fox MF
Source: SOCIAL STUDIES OF SCIENCE 35 (1): 131-150 FEB 2005
Document Type: Article Language: English
Cited References: 30 Times Cited: 0
This paper concentrates upon the relationship between marriage, parental
status, and publication productivity for women in academic science, with
comparisons to men. Findings indicate that gender, family characteristics,
and productivity are complex considerations that go beyond being married or
not married, and the presence or absence of children. For women
particularly, the relationship between marriage and productivity varies by
type of marriage: first compared with subsequent marriage, and occupation of
spouse (in scientific compared with non-scientific occupation). Further,
type of family composition is important: women with preschool children have
higher productivity than women without children or with school-age children.
Women with preschool children are found to be a socially selective group in
their characteristics, particularly in their allocations of time.
Author Keywords: children; family; gender; household; productivity; scientists
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS:
In summary, gender, productivity, and family characteristics are complex
considerations that go beyond being married or not married, and the presence
or absence of children. For women, particularly, the relationship between
marriage and productivity varies by type of marriage: that is, subsequent
compared with first marriage, and occupation of spouse. Women in subsequent
marriages have higher productivity than women in first marriages. This
relates to their greater likelihood to be married to another scientist; and
when married to a scientist, the effects for productivity are positive.
In family composition, the predominant pattern for women scientists is that
of "no children", found among 52% of women (compared with 21% of men).
Among types of family compositions, however, the productivity of women with
preschool children is higher than that of women without children or those
with school-aged children. In pursuing factors that may be associated with
this anomalous pattern, women scientists who have preschool children show
signs of being a socially selective group in marriage and family patterns,
research interests, and allocations of time. In a multivariate model of
productivity for women, allocations of more time in research-related
activity and less in non-research-related activity are the most significant
factors, among those considered.
The data do not indicate particular policies and practices in the work
environments of the women scientists. At issue, for example, are the
implications for productivity of flexible-time policies on campus or
programs of parental leave and child-care. It may - or may not- be the case
that women with preschool children are apt to be in settings with such
policies or programs.
In addition, it is important to emphasize that these data do not indicate
that marriage and young children have no effect upon women in science.
Marriage and young children have a multitude of effects in personal
sacrifices as well as rewards, and extraordinary arrangements of
accommodation (Grant et al., 2000). What these data show is that marriage
and young children are not associated with depressed publication
productivity among women who do hold academic positions in science.
In the interpretation of the data on marriage, parenthood, and productivity,
it is important to point out this: these data are based upon women who have
survived a rigorous and demanding process of scrutiny, selection, and
evaluation in science. Family demands may take their toll along the way,
through graduate school and early career, so that a proportion of women are
eliminated from scientific careers and do not even fall into such
cross-sectional data or professional, employed scientists (see Long, 1987).
Thus, in continuing steps, we need to understand more about the way that
productivity and productivity differences unfold over time and in
relationship to family and household characterists - with implications for
sustained participation and performance in science"
Addresses: Fox MF (reprint author), Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Publ Policy,
Atlanta, GA 30332 USA
Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Publ Policy, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA
E-mail Addresses: mary.fox at pubpolicy.gatech.edu
Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 1 OLIVERS YARD, 55 CITY ROAD, LONDON EC1Y
IDS Number: 915WG
*NAT AC SCI, 1995, RESH GRAD ED SCI ENG.
ASTIN HS, 1985, SCHOLARLY WRITING PU, P147.
ASTIN HS, 1997, ACAD COUPLES PROBLEM, P128.
BLACKBURN R, 1996, FACULTY WORK.
BRUER JT, 1984, SCI TECHNOL, V9, P3.
CLARK MJ, 1985, RES HIGH EDUC, V23, P256.
COLE JR, 1984, ADV MOTIVATION ACHIE, V2.
COLE JR, 1987, SCI AM, V256, P119.
COLE JR, 1991, OUTER CIRCLE WOMEN S, P277.
CREAMER E, 1998, ASHEERIC HIGHER ED R, V26.
CREAMER EG, 1999, J HIGH EDUC, V70, P261.
CRESWELL JW, 1985, 4 ASHEERIC.
FOX MF, 1985, SOCIOL QUART, V26, P537.
FOX MF, 1992, SOCIOL EDUC, V65, P293.
GRANT L, 2000, WOMENS STUDIES Q, V28, P62.
HELMREICH RL, 1980, J PERS SOC PSYCHOL, V39, P896.
KYVIK S, 1990, SOC STUD SCI, V20, P149.
LONG JS, 1987, WOMEN THEIR UNDERSTA, P157.
LONG JS, 1990, SOC FORCES, V68, P1297.
LONG JS, 1992, SOC FORCES, V71, P159.
LOTKA A, 1926, J WASHINGTON ACAD SC, V26, P317.
LUUKKONENGRONOW T, 1983, ACTA SOCIOL, V26, P267.
MERTON RK, 1973, SOCIOLOGY SCI.
MULLINS NC, 1973, SCI SOME SOCIOLOGICA.
PEARSON W, 1994, WILL DO SCI ED NEXT.
PELZ D, 1976, SCI ORGANIZATIONS.
PRICE D, 1963, LITTLE SCI BIG SCI.
RESKIN BF, 1978, AM J SOCIOL, V83, P1235.
SONNERT G, 1995, GENDER DIFFERENCES S.
ZUCKERMAN H, 1991, OUTER CIRCLE WOMEN S.
More information about the SIGMETRICS