Godin B. "The numbers makers: Fifty years of science and technology official statistics" Minerva 40(4):375-397, 2002

Eugene Garfield garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Tue Jan 14 13:48:12 EST 2003

Benoit Godin : Benoit.Godin at INRS-UCS.Uquebec.Ca

Url: for Kluwer Online subscribers:

Title     The numbers makers: Fifty years of science and technology
          official statistics
Author    Godin B
Journal   MINERVA 40 (4): 375-397 2002

 Document type: Review   Language: English
 Cited References: 114   Times Cited: 0

Official science and technology statistics are fifty years old. Among
industrial countries, the forerunners were the United States, Canada and
Great Britain. This paper traces the development and the construction of S&T
statistics in these three countries, and their subsequent standardization,
mainly by the OECD, in the 1960s. It shows how military and science policy
needs drove the construction of statistics, until economic considerations
came to dominate their development. It also discusses how statistics
interacted with politics by way of studies that documented gaps between OECD
Member countries and between the OECD and the USSR.

Godin B, Univ Quebec, Inst Natl Rech Sci, 3465 Rue Durocher, Montreal, PQ
H2X 2C6, Canada
Univ Quebec, Inst Natl Rech Sci, Montreal, PQ H2X 2C6, Canada


IDS Number:


 Cited Author            Cited Work                Volume      Page   Year

                       ANN REPORTS ACSP 195
 *ACSP                 1 ANN REP                                       1948
 *ACSP                 REP RECR SCI ENG ENG                            1955
 *ADV COUNC SCI IND    ANN REP                                 20      1918
 *ASS SCI WORK         IND RES LAB                                     1936
 *BUR BUDG             ANN REP SECR STAT FI                   687      1951
 *BUR BUDG             R D EST OBL EXP 1951                            1950
 *BUR LAB STAT         B DEP LAB                   1148                1953
 *DEP REC SUPPL        RES SCI ACT CAN FED                             1947
 *DOM BUR STAT         FED GOV EXP SCI ACT                             1960
 *DOM BUR STAT         IND RES DEV EXP CAN                             1956
 *DOM BUR STAT         SURV SCI IND LAB CAN                            1941
 *DSIR                 EST RES DEV SCI ENG                             1958
 *FED BRIT IND         IND RES MAN IND 1959                            1961
 *FED BRIT IND         SCI TECHN RES BRIT I                            1947
 *NAT RES COMM         RES NAT RES                    1                1938
 *NAT RES COUNC        B NRC                         58                1927
 *NAT RES COUNC        B NRC                          2                1921
 *NAT RES COUNC        B NRC                          1                1920
 *NAT RES COUNC        B NRC WASHINGTON                                1923
 *NAT RES COUNC        DOCT CONF SCI 1920 A                            1920
 *NAT RES PLANN BOA    RES NAT RES                    3                1941
 *NAT RES PLANN BOA    RES NAT RES                    2                1941
 *NAT SCI FDN          BAS RES NAT RES                                 1957
 *NAT SCI FDN          FED FUNDS SCI FED FU                            1953
 *NAT SCI FDN          SESS AM STAT ASS DEC                            1959
 *OECD                 1978 M NESTI                                    1978
 *OECD                 DSTISPR7652 OECD                                1976
 *OECD                 DSTISPR8138 OECD                                1981
 *OECD                 DSTISPR8317 OECD                                1983
 *OECD                 DSTISTPTIP942 OECD                       3      1994
 *OECD                 GAPS TECHN GEN REP                              1968
 *OECD                 GOV TECHN INN                                   1966
 *OECD                 MAN MEAS HUM RES SCI                            1995
 *OECD                 MEAS SCI TECHN ACT D                            1994
 *OECD                 MEAS SCI TECHN ACT P                            1990
 *OECD                 MEAS SCI TECHN ACT S                            1989
 *OECD                 MIN TALK SCI                                    1963
 *OECD                 NESTI M HELD 24 25 J                     4      1995
 *OECD                 PROBL SCI TECHN MANP                     5      1957
 *OECD                 PROP GUID COLL INT T                            1997
 *OECD                 REP ACT AG EUR PROD                             1965
 *OECD                 RES SCI TECHN PERS O                            1963
 *OECD                 SCI EC GROWTH GOV                               1963
 *OECD                 SCI POL GOV                             24      1963

 *OECD                 SHORT SURPL HIGHL QU                    21      1955
 *OECD                 SPM672 OECD                              4      1967
 *OECD                 SPT7314 OECD                            12      1973
 *OECD                 SPT786 OECD                                     1978
 *OECD                 SPT8312 OECD                                    1995
 *OECD                 SPT848 OECD                                     1983
 *OECD                 SPT8610 OECD                                    1986
 *OECD                 SR6215 OECD                              1      1962
 *OECD                 SR6716 OECD                                     1967
 *OECD                 STP6425 OECD                                    1964
 *OECD                 STP693 OECD                                     1969
 *OECD                 STP853 OECD                                     1985
 *OECD                 STUD RES DEV R D OEC                            1968
 *OECD                 STUD RES DEV R D OEC                            1967
 *OEEC                 FOR MANP NEEDS AG SC                            1960
 *OEEC                 OSTP60414 OECD                                  1960
 *OSRD                 COST AN R D WORK REL                            1947
 *US BUR CENS          HIST STAT US                           609      1957
 ANTHONY RN            MANAGE CONTROLS                        288      1952
 BARFIELD CE           SCI 21 CENTURY BUSH                      4      1997
 BAXTER JP             SCI TIME                               127      1946
 BOEL B                EXPLORATIONS OECC HI                   113      1997

 BOEL B                THESIS U COPENHAGEN                             1997
 BUSH V                SCI ENDLESS FRONTIER                    85      1945
 CHENG CY              6514 NSF                                        1965
 COCHRANE RC           NATL ACAD SCI 1 100                    240      1978
 COZZENS S             SCI INDICATORS DESCR                            1991
 DEARBORN DC           SPENDING IND RES 195                            1953
 DEWITT N              6140 NSF                                        1961
 DEWITT N              SOVIET PROFESSIONAL                             1955
 DOERN B               SCI POLITICS CANADA                             1982
 DUPREE AH             SCI FEDERAL GOVT HIS                            1957
 ENGLAND JM            PATRON PURE SCI NSFS                    82      1982
 FABIAN Y              DASPD6348 OECD                                  1963
 FREEMAN C             RES DEV EFFORT W EUR                            1965
 GEIGER RL             MINERVA                       35       349      1997
 GODIN B               DEFINING R D IS RES                             2001
 GODIN B               EMERGENCE SCI TECHNO                            2000
 GODIN B               MEASURING HIGHLY QUA                            2001
 GODIN B               MEASURING OUTPUT EC                             2001
 GODIN B               MEASURING SCI IS THE                            2000
 GODIN B               METADATA FOOTNOTES M                            2001
 GODIN B               NELECTED SCI ACTIVIT                            2000
 GODIN B               SCI TECHNOL HUM VAL           27         3      2002

 GODIN B               WHATS SO DIFFICULT I                            2001
 GREENBERG DS          SCI MONEY POLITICS P                            2001
 HEMILY P              COMMUNICATION                                   2001
 HOLLAND M             RES HARD TIMES                                  1933
 HUGHES AC             SYSTEMS EXPERTS COMP                            2000
 HULL JP               TOPICS CANADIAN BUSI          10         1      1988
 KILGORE HM            GOVT WARTIME RES DEV                            1945
 KING A                MINISTERS TALK SCI                      17      1965
 KING A                UNPUB PRODUCTIVITY M                            1992
 LEVINE AJ             MISSILE SPACE RACE                      57      1994
 MACLEOD R             MINERVA                       37       201      1999
 MCCOLM GT             COMMUNICATION   1013                            2000
 MEES CEK              ORG IND SCI RES                         35      1950
 ORLEANS LA            613 NSF                                         1961
 OWENS L               BUS HIST REV                  68       533      1994
 PAPADOPOULOS GS       ED 1960 1990 OECD                       21      1994
 PERAZICH G            M4 WORK PROJ ADM NAT                            1941
 PURSELL C             SCI AM CONTEXT                         367      1979
 ROSTAS L              COMP PRODUCTIVITY BR                            1948
 SALOMON JJ            COMMUNICATION   0310                            2001
 SALOMON JJ            REV HIST CNRS                  3        40      2000
 SAPOLSKY H            SCI NAVY HIST OFFICE                    43      1990

 STEELMAN JR           SCI PUBLIC POLICY                               1947
 THISTLE M             INNER RING EARLY HIS                   159      1966
 WILGRESS D            COOPERATION SCI TECH                            1960

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Eugene Garfield, PhD.
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Tel: 215-243-2205 Fax 215-387-1266
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