Noordenbos G. "Women in academies of sciences: from exclusion to exception. WOMENS STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 25 (1): 127-137 JAN-FEB 2002

Eugene Garfield garfield at CODEX.CIS.UPENN.EDU
Fri Aug 16 17:17:11 EDT 2002

Greta.noordenbos at

Title     Women in academies of sciences: From exclusion to exception
Author      Noordenbos G
Journal     WOMENS STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM  25 (1): 127-137 JAN-FEB 2002

Document type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 29
Times Cited: 0

The development of women in academies of sciences can be historicized from
exclusion to exception. Most national academies elected their first female
members in the 20th century after the Second World War. Why were women
elected so late? The most important explanations for the long-lasting
exclusion of women discussed in this article are the professionalization and
institutionalization of science, the restriction of members, the exclusion
of women from universities, the diminishing power of the aristocracy, the
increasing divergence between the public and the private sphere, male
prejudice against women, fear of losing status, and social closure of male
networks. In order to gather information about the first women elected as
members, the number of female members elected since then, and the actual
percentage of female members, a questionnaire was distributed to all
European academies of sciences. Results from 47 academies and 431 female
members are presented. Although
there is a steady increase in the number of female members since 1970, the
proportion of women is still very low between 1% and 15%. The article
concludes with some suggestions for the improvement of the situation of
women in higher scientific positions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All
rights reserved.

Noordenbos G, Leiden Univ, Joke Smit Inst Womens Studies, Wassenaarseweg 52,
NL-2333 AK Leiden, Netherlands
Leiden Univ, Joke Smit Inst Womens Studies, NL-2333 AK Leiden, Netherlands


IDS Number:


 Cited Author            Cited Work                Volume      Page

 ACAR F                GENDER GAP HIGHER ED                   160      1994
 ALIC M                HIST WOMEN SCI ANTIQ                            1986
 BOSCH M               GESLACHT WETENSCHAP                             1994
 BOTS H                U GEMEENSCHAP ACADEM                            1976
 BRUINVELSBAKKER M     NVON                           7       291      1993
 CHAMBERS D            ITALIAN ACAD 16 CENT                     1      1995
 CROSLAND M            SCI CONTROL FRENCH A                            1992
 DASHKOVA C            MEMOIRS MON HIST AUT                            1995
 EASLEA B              SCI SEXUAL OPPRESSIO                            1981
 JULIAN M              CREATIVE COUPLES SCI                   170      1996
 JULIAN MM             WOMEN SCI RIGHTING R                   335      1990
 KANT I                METAPHYSIK SITTEN                               1785
 LANDES J              IK DENK DUS ZIJ IS V                    75      1994
 LIE S                 GENDER GAP HIGHER ED                            1994
 LORIOT M              I JOLIOTCURIE VROUW                             1993
 MASON J               CAMBRIDGE WOMEN 12 P                   113      1996
 MIJNHARDT W           HEIL MENSCHDOM CULTU                            1987
 MURPHY R              SOCIAL CLOSURE THEOR                            1988
 NOORDENBOS G          VROUWEN ACAD WETENSC                            2000
 PHILLIPS P            SCI LADY SOCIAL HIST                            1990
 QUINN S               M CURIE LIFE                                    1995
 ROSE H                LOVE POWER KNOWLEDGE                            1994
 ROSSITER M            WOMEN SCI AM STRUGGL                            1982
 ROUSSEAU JJ           OEUVRES COMPLETES              4      1959      1962
 SAVIGNEAU J           M YOURCENAR BIOGRAFI                            1991
 SCHIEBINGER L         MIND HAS NO SEX WOME                            1989
 VANBALEN B            VROUWEN WETENSCHAPPE                            2001
 WETTENGL K            MM MERIAN 1647 1717                             1998
 ZUCKERMAN H           SCI ELITE NOBEL LAUR                            1977

When responding, please attach my original message
Eugene Garfield, PhD.  email: garfield at
home page:
Tel: 215-243-2205 Fax 215-387-1266
President, The Scientist LLC.
Chairman Emeritus, ISI
Past President, American Society for Information Science and Technology

More information about the SIGMETRICS mailing list