SOFT:ResearchIndex (CiteSeer)

Gretchen Whitney gwhitney at UTKUX.UTCC.UTK.EDU
Mon Jun 21 15:32:47 EDT 1999

-----Original Message-----
From: Steve Lawrence [mailto:lawrence at]
Sent: Friday, June 18, 1999 7:31 PM
To: issi at
Subject: ResearchIndex (CiteSeer): Scientific Literature Digital Library

ResearchIndex (formerly CiteSeer), a digital library of scientific
literature that automatically performs citation indexing is available

ResearchIndex aims to improve the dissemination and feedback of
scientific literature, and to provide improvements in functionality,
usability, availability, cost, comprehensiveness, efficiency, and

The ResearchIndex software is available without cost for
non-commercial use. The demonstration service indexes over 200,000
computer science articles (containing over 2 million citations).

Many digital libraries of scientific literature are available
(e.g. LANL e-Print archive, ACM DL, IEEE DL, UCSTRI, CORR, ML Papers,
NCSTRL, LTRS, HP Bib, CS Bibliographies, NZDL etc.). These services
offer varying degrees of functionality, comprehensiveness, and

Rather than creating just another digital library, ResearchIndex
provides algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in
other digital libraries.

ResearchIndex indexes Postscript and PDF research articles and

- Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ResearchIndex uses ACI to
        autonomously create a citation index that can be used for
        literature search and evaluation. Compared to traditional
        citation indices, ACI provides improvements in cost,
        availability, comprehensiveness, efficiency, and

- Information on all cited documents, not just indexed documents.
        ResearchIndex computes citation statistics and related documents
        for all articles cited in the database, not just the indexed

- Reference linking. As with many online publishers, ResearchIndex allows
        browsing the database using citation links.

- Citation context - ResearchIndex can show the context of
        citations to a given paper, allowing a researcher to quickly
        and easily see what other researchers have to say about an
        article of interest (useful for literature search and

- Awareness and tracking - ResearchIndex provides automatic
        notification of new citations to given papers, and new
        papers matching a user profile. Machine learning is used
        to automatically learn user profiles.

- Related documents - ResearchIndex locates related documents
        using citation and word frequency measures and displays an
        active and continuously updated bibliography for each

- Similar documents - ResearchIndex computes the percentage of
        matching sentences between documents, allowing, for
        example, the detection of minor revisions to a paper.

- Full-text indexing - ResearchIndex indexes the full-text of the
        entire articles and citations. Full Boolean, phrase and
        proximity search is supported.

- Query-sensitive summaries - ResearchIndex provides the context
        of how query terms are used in articles, instead of a generic
        summary, improving the efficiency of search.

- Citation graph analysis - ResearchIndex analyzes the graph of
        citations, e.g. to identify authoritative and review style

- Page images - ResearchIndex allows quick and easy viewing of
        page images.

- Up-to-date - ResearchIndex is continuously updated 24 hours
        a day.

- Powerful search - e.g. ResearchIndex allows using author initials
        to narrow a citation search.

- Autonomous location of articles - ResearchIndex uses search engines,
        crawling, and mailing list monitoring to efficiently locate
        papers on the Web. ResearchIndex can also be used on
        existing digital libraries.

- Source code available - The full source code of ResearchIndex is
        available without cost for non-commercial use.

A demonstration service is at:
For more details or to obtain the software see

The following papers contain details of the system:

"Digital libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing", Volume 32,
Number 6, 67-71, 1999.

"CiteSeer: An automatic citation indexing system", Digital Libraries,
June 1998 [shortlisted for best paper].

"CiteSeer: An autonomous Web agent for automatic retrieval and
identification of interesting publications", Autonomous Agents, May

"CiteSeer: Autonomous Citation Indexing and Literature Browsing Using
Citation Context", Technical Report, NEC Research, 1997.

We currently only have a small capacity machine on our external
network for demonstration. The demonstration service indexes over
200,000 computer science articles.

Credits: We would like to thank Joshua Alspector, Jose Nelson Amaral,
Anders Ardo, Shumeet Baluja, Arunava Banerjee, Eric Baum, Robert
Cameron, Rich Caruana, Ingemar Cox, Scott Fahlman, Gary Flake, Eugene
Garfield, Bill Gear, Paul Ginsparg, Eric Glover, Abby Goodrum, Alan
Gottlieb, Steve Hanson, Eric Hellman, Haym Hirsh, Steve Hitchcock,
Paul Kantor, Jon Kleinberg, Bob Krovetz, Andrea LaPaugh, Michael Lesk,
Andrew McCallum, Steve Minton, Tom Mitchell, Michael Nelson, Craig
Nevill-Manning, Andrew Ng, Max Ott, Brian Pinkerton, Alexandrin
Popescul, Ben Schafer, Bruce Schatz, Terrence Sejnowski, Warren Smith,
Dagobert Soergel, Amanda Spink, Harold Stone, Valerie Tucci, Lyle
Ungar, David Waltz, Ian Witten, and Peter Yianilos for useful comments
and suggestions.

Steve Lawrence -

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